Increasingflavor and aroma

with
Hop Biotransformation
Trending up
Brewers are now looking for more hop flavor and aroma in their beers than ever before.
Since 2009, demand for hop aroma varieties has sharply increased.
Demand for hop aromas by year
Source: Hop market update Barth-Haas Group (Last update Nov. 27th 2019).
Demand for
hop aromas
by year

Inside a hop

Inside a hop
Strig
The stem of the hop
Bract
The leave and outter structure of the hop
Bracteoles
The structures inside the hop that protect the lupulin glands
Lupulin glands
Where the resins and oils leave
Lupulin gland

Where do hop flavors and aromas come from?

Lupulin gland
Hop oil icon
Hop resin and oils found in the Lupulin gland account for the flavors and aromas associated with hops.
Weight for weight

A dried hop cone contains...

Dried hops
Dried hops
Dried hops resin chart
15-30%
Hop Resins
Responsible for Bitterness
Dried hops oil chart
0.5-3%
Hop Oils
Responsible for Flavor
Dried hops polyphenols chart
4%
Polyphenols
* Average chemical composition
Star icon
The main source of hop aroma!

Getting
the most
out of your

Hop oil

Hop aroma in beer is primarily determined by the hop oil composition, which is divided into three categories:
Hydrocarbon fraction
Hydrocarbon fraction
e.g. Myrcene
Oxygenated fraction
Oxygenated fraction
e.g. Lynalool
Sulfur fraction
Sulfur fraction
e.g. Polyfunctional Thiols

Some oils from the oxygenated fraction are odorless because they are bound to other molecules.
Releasing these molecules can boost the aroma.

——— But how? ———

BOOSTING AROMAS withHOP BIOTRANSFORMATION

Hop image
A new and innovative way to boost hop flavor and aroma

Hops contain aroma compounds that are bound to non-volatile conjugates.

Yeast-derived enzymes can cleave the conjugate to release these compounds and boost hop flavor and aroma.

Yeast facilitates Hop Biotransformation and  optimizes flavor and aroma from less aromatic hop varieties. 

Glycoside molecule

What are hop glycosides?

A glycoside is a compound that is chemically bound to a sugar molecule. In hops, aroma compounds such as terpenes are bound to sugars as glycosides in the green matter of the hop. Terpene glycosides play a role in hop biotransformation.

Yeast's role in beer aroma

During fermentation, yeast produces aromatic esters
During fermentation, yeast produces aromatic esters
giving the beer specific flavors, such as...
Yeast cell image
Beer flavors
Floral icon
Floral
Phenyltheyl acetate
Pineapple and banana icon
Pineapple, banana
Isoamyl acetate
Fruity icon
Fruity
Isobutyl acetate
Solvent icon
Solvent
Ethyl acetate
Aniseed and apple icon
Aniseed, apple
Ethyl hexanoate
Sour apple icon
Sour apple
Ethyl octanoate

Yeast also naturally produces β‑glucosidase enzymes, turning non-aromatic glycosides into aromatic terpenes.

This process, called hydrolysis, releases aromatic terpenes from glycosides that were previously not volatile.
?
Did you know
β-glucosidase enzymes create aromas and impact the final beer's results.
Releasing aromas
Hydrolysis of Linalyl Glycoside
Lynalyl glycoside molecule
Lynalyl glycoside
(non-aromatic)
Green arrow
β-GLUCOSIDASE
Green arrow
Black arrow
Glucose molecule
Glucose
fermentable sugar
Lynalool molecule
Linalool
aromatic terpene
When defining your recipes, yeast strain selection is crucial
LalBrew Köln

β-GLUCOSIDASE ACTIVITY DIFFERS BY YEAST STRAIN

Which yeat strains have the most β‑glucosidase activity?
β-glucosidase secreted enzyme assay 6 hours at room temperature
Relative enzyme activity
Relative enzyme activity
Source: Lallemand brewing (2020)
LalBrew Köln

Can exogenous β-glucosidase enzymes boost biotransformation?

The short answer:
YES!

Lallemand conducted global trials using an enzyme formulation based on β‑glucosidase and compared the results to a control beer.

Trial Recipe
Beer style icon
Beer style
Brut IPA
ABV icon
ABV
6.0%
Brewing yeast icon
Brewing yeast
BRY-97
Hop varieties icon
Hop varieties
Chinook and Centennial
Dry-hopping amount icon
Dry-hopping amount
12g/L
Trial Results
Arrow icon
0%
Increase in Linalool concentration compared to the control beer
(measured in the head space via HS-GC/MS)
Blind taste test
General Panel General panel icon
Expert Panel Expert panel icon
Brut IPA with enzymes icon
Preferred the Brut IPA with enzymes
Brut IPA control icon
Preferred the Brut IPA Control (no enzymes)
Conclusion from Lallemand's global trials
The use of exogenous β-glucosidase does impact beer aroma and flavor
Yeast strain
Different yeast strains produce different esters and enzymes.
Hop crop year and country
Hop oil composition varies based on the region where the hop was grown and the harvest year.
Factors Impacting Results
Hop variety
Hop oil composition varies with the variety of hop used and has a direct effect on the Overall Hop Aroma Intensity (OHAI) in the beer.
Brewing conditions
Results are influenced by the dose rate, timing and temperature of dry-hopping as well as β-glucosidase enzyme addition.
5
Benefits of using exogenous β‑glucosidase
Aromazyme bottle
  1. Increases the diversity of hop flavors and aroma by changing the ratio of specific terperne compounds
  2. Enhances the beer mouthfeel and drinkability by reducing unpleasant, harsh bitterness
  3. Increases wort fermentability
  4. Increases beer aroma complexity when combined with selected yeasts
  5. Enhances hop flavor and aroma
Get more Hop icon from less
Get more flavor and aroma from your hops with Aromazyme
Aromazyme bottles
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References
Almaguer, C., Schönberger, C., Gastl, M., Arendt, E. K., & Becker, T. (2014). Humulus lupulus - A story that begs to be told. A review. J. Inst. Brew., 120(4), 289-314.
Barth-Haas (2019). Hop market update Barth-Haas Group (Last update Nov. 27th 2019).
Lallemand (2020). Best Practices: Biotransformation. Retrieved from www.lallemandbrewing.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/LAL-bestpractices-Biotransformation2020.pdf
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About Lallemand Brewing
Lallemand Brewing is a business unit of Lallemand Inc., a privately held Canadian company specializing in the development, production, and marketing of yeasts and bacteria. Lallemand Inc. has over 4,000 employees locatedn in more than 45 countries on 5 continents. For more information on Lallemand, please visit www.lallemandbrewing.com